International Sugar Journal
The Blackboard

Entrainment – basic concepts [Registered]

Spencer & Meade (1948) state that during evaporation there is always the possibility of sucrose loss due to the carrying over, or entrainment, of small drops of juice or syrup […]

Read more …
The Blackboard

Brix free water – the concept [Registered]

Heintz in 1874 showed that when air-dried and sugar free beet “marc” (the beet components remaining after complete aqueous extraction of the soluble constituents) is placed in a sugar solution […]

Read more …
The Blackboard

Milling performance [Registered]

An interesting aspect of milling is the evaluation of the performance of each mill in the tandem. Early (1921-1931) analytical techniques are described in Browne & Zerban (1948); sampling is discussed in the SASTA Laboratory Manual (1985). Material balances across milling tandems normally use 4 main assumptions which are not all rigorously correct:

Read more …
The Blackboard

Chemical Cleaning of Evaporators [Registered]

Literature on the chemical cleaning of evaporators was available in 1929 (Spencer & Meade; 1948); in most cases sodium hydroxide and soda ash were boiled individually or as mixtures in the vessels which were then drained and washed. A boiling with hydrochloric acid would follow if necessary. Spraying techniques in Java and Hawaii were seen to be more economical in terms of chemical quantities. Fermented molasses was used in Queensland in the early 1930’s, and Honig (1953) quotes results obtained in 1949 from Taiwan.

Read more …
The Blackboard

Mechanical cleaning of evaporators [Registered]

Although mechanical cleaning of evaporators must have been used in many cane sugar industries, the topic is not well covered in the literature. There are a number of reasons for […]

Read more …
The Blackboard

Evaporator scale [Registered]

Spencer & Meade (1948) state that “The greatest limiting factor to all evaporators is the fouling of heating surfaces”; they also include the results (on the right) obtained by analysing […]

Read more …
The Blackboard

Cane cleaning [Registered]

The cleaning of harvested sugar cane to remove tops, trash, rocks and soil is not a new concept: Spencer & Meade (1948) describe a dry cane cleaning plant used in […]

Read more …
The Blackboard

Analysis of sugar mixtures (part II) [Registered]

For the analysis of sugar mixtures Browne & Zerban (1948) use total solids by drying, which is an accurate but lengthy procedure; reading a refractometer Brix is simpler but requires […]

Read more …
The Blackboard

“True” Sucrose [Registered]

The use of pol as an estimate of sucrose has been, and still is, one of the most useful practices in the sugar industry. Its limitations were however well known; […]

Read more …
The Blackboard

Leuconostoc mesenteroides [Registered]

“If you know your enemies and know yourself, you will not be imperilled in a hundred battles “said Sun Tzu, a Chinese military strategist of the 6th century BC (Anon, […]

Read more …