EM in sugarcane can be of vegetable or mineral nature. The former includes immature tops, green/dry leaves, sheaths, side shoots and suckers; the minerals consist mainly of soil/sand present in the harvested cane. In the past all the EM in sugarcane was viewed as a problem with negative effects during harvesting, loading and transporting of the cane and on processing through reduced throughputs, poor boiler operation, sucrose losses and poor sugar quality.
Investigating the form and shape of sucrose (S) crystals started in 1843; remarkable results were published by Kucharenko and Phelps in 1928 and 1932 (Powers, 1969-1970). In 1959 Powers mentioned […]
The clarification process in cane sugar factories yields clear juice which moves forwards to the process and an underflow called mud. The mud contains non-sucrose species precipitated through the action of heat and lime; as it settles slowly the precipitate traps, and therefore removes, suspended matter in the supernatant juice.
In 1935 ISSCT held a symposium on methods to determine the maturity of sugarcane; a presentation from Nath & Kasinath gives references from work done in 1915 and 1916 in Malaysia and India. Kerr (1935) describes a method based on randomly sampling 10 stalks which were then divided into three equal lengths, namely top (Tp), middle (Mi) and bottom (Bo);
Breeding work has been published regularly in cane sugar literature, often by the same author over many years. H H Dodds for example published 7 papers from 1926 to 1944 and P G C Brett 6 from 1947 to 1957, in SASTA proceedings. In Australia J H Buzacott, K R Gard, M K Butterfield, D M Hogarth & N Berding and M C Cox et al published from 1950 to 2014.
Browne & Zerban (1948) quote Scheibler who in 1875 investigated a “double dilution” method to reduce the error caused by the lead precipitate in saccharimetry; Pellet & Sachs in 1880 […]
Sampling condensed vapours and condenser waters is never easy. Beale (1959, 1962) and Claire (1965, 1967) mention practical difficulties encountered. Vapour sampling involves iso-kinetic (constant velocity) principles which require sophisticated equipment to obtain representative condensed vapour samples. Most workers have sampled condensates and condenser waters, using simplified sampling equipment. One of the problems associated with condenser waters is that the inlet water usually contains sugar. The large volumes of water and low concentrations of sugar can cause serious errors. A simple calculation illustrates the difficulty; we assume that the condenser inlet and outlet waters contain 70ppm of sugar, that 1 ton of vapour requires 30 tons of inlet water, and that the analytical precision is ±1ppm.